THE SIGNATURE OF HISTORY IN THE SEMI-SCHOOLED
Mauricio Flamenco Bacilio
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (MEXICO)
Palabra de Clío AC (MEXICO)
The abstract is about the Courses of History in the semi-schooled system of the Public High Schools of
This text is one part of my current research named: Análisis crítico de la materia de Historia en la modalidad semiescolar del IEMS-DF (Critical Analysis of the signature of History in the semi-schooled modality at IEMS-DF). This work started after my teaching experience at the Instituto de Educación Media Superior del Distrito Federal (IEMS-DF) (The institution’s name can be translated as High School Education Institute of the Federal District [
The IEMS-DF was founded in march 2000 by the government of the Federal District (
education is one of the most important problems to solve in Mexican society today. The graduated students of IEMS-DF have access to the Universidad Autónoma de
3 THE COURSES OF HISTORY AT IEMS-DF
There are four obligatory courses and another optional course of History at IEMS-DF. Students take History from third to sixth semester. Contrary to other institutions or courses of History, at IEMS-DF the History courses start with contemporary History and the last course talks about prehistory and ancient civilizations. All courses have a clear division between two blocks of themes. In the first block we teach and learn topics of world or universal History, then we teach and learn the same temporary line we learnt in the past block, but now focused in the geographical context of
The third course takes a longer temporary context. It begins with the middle ages in
evolution of human beings with their ancestries. After prehistory we learn the main features of the first ancient civilizations such as
contributions in world History nowadays. This last course includes the classic western cultures (
Apart form the obligatory courses, IEMS-DF’s students can take an optional course. The title of this signature is Cultural History of Mexico City. Here students learn not only the historical development of their city, but also the evolution of several artistic manifestations like architecture, literature, painting
and sculpture. The social organization along centuries is explained in this course too and students must explain the meaning of different concepts like culture, cultural heritage, history, historiography and cultural history. Daily life history is a current and successful way to explain the past and it is included in the optional course too. Daily life History is known by the German and French concepts of Alltaggeschichte and La vie quotidienne respectively. All courses at IEMS-DF, including the optional signature give a priority to social aspects and the ways of life through times and places. During the last decades social history has been more worked among historians, and public could be more interested in this way to explain the past unlike the traditional political and military history. These innovative manners to write, teach and learn History can approach the knowledge of past in a better and more comprehensible way, and with Daily life history the students could an identification with common persons of the past. Another important thing of the courses of History in this institution is the inclusion of a block at the end of every course about historical research and historiography schools, like the Nouvelle Histoire française (French new history), Marxism and microhistory. All these streams of historiography prioritize the social actors and students can be identified with them. Nevertheless, the number of sessions and hours for every course are not enough to extend this part. A highlighted feature at IEMS-DF is the inclusion of a special work named “Problema Eje” (Axis Problem). This is a signature of the last semester and to approve it, the student must make a report with the structure of a scientific research, a monograph or even an art work, that students must expose before teachers and public. This work must be followed by a teacher and represents the final note to obtain the High school certificate. It could be like a dissertation to this education degree and some students make their “Axis Problem” related with the signature of History.
4 STUDENT’S PROFILE AT IEMS-DF
As I mentioned, the IEMS-DF was created to increase the admission to a High School education in
For my dissertation I made a survey poll to know more about the student’s profile at IEMS-DF. The poll was made among students of sixth semester in school year 2010-2011. The results revealed part of the things we supposed. Some students started their high school studies in other institutions, other students were not accepted in other schools, some students work and many hadn’t all the school credits yet. Even some students declared that they were in the semi-schooled system because they couldn’t reach a place in the regular schooled system of the same High school. To write about the student’s academic profile in the dissertation is important, because there is no works about this institution and the semi-schooled modality yet. The lack of a school identity among semi-schooled students is a problem I consider. The regular school students can use laboratories. They can take out books from the library or participate in sport or artistic activities. Semi-schooled students can’t do these things instead. This disadvantage situation encourages the school failure and desertion, two of the most important educational problems in
problems and first results.
5 CLASS METHOD
After my teaching experience, I have seen how important the class texts are, independently from their quality, deficiencies and above all the ideological perspectives when we talk about History. A text book is always better than nothing, specially if teachers work with students with academic deficiencies, no
study habits or no time to study due working activities. In the same way, class books and didactic materials can improve the quality of the class and the knowledge of student as well. I have had students who can’t attend to all lessons. I told them that they must study on their own helping themselves with the text books, after they must present exams on the indicated date. If students follow this instruction they can approve the signature and I have seen it, even if they need to present an extraordinary exam. Exams are always based on books made by the institution, above all during the extraordinary period.
With reading exercises complemented by teacher’s explanations, pupils understand the links and bonds between past and present in a better way. The class doesn’t pretend to memorize dates or names. Students must explain events of the past with its causes and consequences, then they must analyze the different historical process with a critical view, but without partiality or passion. So they can understand or even explain the origins of several aspects in their current life, such as the social structures In their community, the origin of their religious creeds and practices, the foundation of political and social institutions, the importance and contributions of ancient civilizations in the present, etcetera. Also in that way, learning about different streams of historiography is important to see how history has changed along time and high school students can have conscience of their on reality.
Here I only tried to share part of my teaching experience and my dissertation. I hope the audience could be interested in this innovative educational system. I know, there is a lot of things to do and to improve. A relatively young institution like IEMS-DF was founded to give more high school places in
 Burke, Peter (1991). New perspectives on Historical Writing. 1st Ed. Cambridge: Polity Press, 254 p.
 Buxarrais, María Rosa et. al. (1997). La educación moral en primaria y en secundaria. Una experiencia española. 1ª Ed. México: Secretaría de Educación Pública, 221 p.
 Castro González, Heladio. (2008). Historia 1. Modalidad Semiescolar del Sistema de Bachillerato del Gobierno del DF. México: Gobierno del Distrito Federal, Secretaría de Educación, Instituto de Educación Media Superior del DF, 112p. ils.
 ---------- (2009). Historia 2. Modalidad Semiescolar del Sistema de Bachillerato del Gobierno del DF. México: Gobierno del Distrito Federal, Secretaría de Educación, Instituto de Educación Media Superior del DF, 138p. ils.
 ---------- (2009). Historia 3. Modalidad Semiescolar del Sistema de Bachillerato del Gobierno del DF. México: Gobierno del Distrito Federal, Secretaría de Educación, Instituto de Educación Media Superior del DF, 125 p. ils.
 ---------- (2010). Historia 4. Modalidad Semiescolar del Sistema de Bachillerato del Gobierno del DF. México: Gobierno del Distrito Federal, Secretaría de Educación, Instituto de Educación Media Superior del DF, 76p. ils.
 Díaz Barriga, Frida, et. al. (1999). Constructivismo y enseñanza de la historia. Fundamentos y recursos didácticos de apoyo a las materias de Historia universal moderna y contemporánea I y II, México: UNAM, Colegio de Ciencias y Humanidades, Facultad de Psicología, 68p.
 OECD. (2008). Education at a glance 2008. OECD Indicators. Paris: OECD, 521p. ils.
 García García, Clara Guadalupe y Alejandra Pérez Morales. (2009). Historia Entretejida. Historia Cultural de
 Instituto de Educación Media Superior del Distrito Federal. (2009). Informe anual de actividades. De marzo de
 ------------ (2010). Plan de trabajo académico 2010 A-2011 B. México: Gobierno del Distrito
Federal, Secretaría de Educación, Instituto de Educación Media Superior del DF, [16p.] ils.
 ------------ (2002). Sistema de Bachillerato del Gobierno del Distrito Federal. Historia. México: Gobierno del Distrito Federal, Secretaría de Desarrollo Social, Instituto de Educación Media Superior del DF, 39p.
 Perrenoud, Philippe. (2004). Diez nuevas competencias para enseñar. Trad. Judith Anreu. 1ª Ed. México: Secretaría de Educación Pública, Graó, 168 p.
 Santrock, John W. (2003) Psicología del desarrollo en
 Salazar Sotelo, Julia. (2006). Narrar y aprender Historia. 1ª Ed. México: UNAM, Dirección General de Estudios de Posgrado, Programa de Posgrado en Historia, Universidad Pedagógica Nacional, 204 p. (Colección Posgrado).
 OECD (2008) Education at a glance 2008. OECD Indicators. Paris, 2008. p. 43, 52, 100, 105-108.
 Instituto de Educación Media Superior del DF. (2009) Informe Anual de Actividades. De marzo de
 Santrock, J. W. (2003) “La escuela” en Psicología del desarrollo en la adolescencia. p.191-192.
 Burke, P. (1991) “Overture: The new History, its past and its future” New perspectives on Historical writing. .p. 11.
 Cannadine, D. (1987) “British History: Past, Present-and Future”. Past and present. No. 116. p. 177 Apud. Sharpe, J. “Hisory from below” Burke, P. Op. Cit. p. 34.
 Buxarrais, María Rosa et. al. (1997) La educación moral en primaria y en secundaria. Una experiencia española. p.29-49.
 Zorrilla Alcalá. Juan F. (2010). El futuro del bachillerato mexicano y el trabajo colegiado. Lecciones de una intervención exitosa. p.107. Class books and other didactic materials are useful to encourage the handling and understanding of topics in the classroom.